More than a decade ago, Smith & Nephew introduced OXINIUM◊ Oxidized Zirconium. This patented metal alloy is available for many of our knee and hip implant systems. The combination of hardness, smoothness and scratch-resistance makes it a superb choice for hip and knee implants.
OXINIUM material—a metal alloy with the surface transformed to ceramic using a patented process—has proven to be a superior metal for use in hip and knee implants due to its reduced friction and increased resistance to scratching and abrasion. These superior properties result in significantly less wear than can be produced by cobalt-chrome alloy (historically the material of choice in hip and knee implants).
Some facts that may interest you:
- OXINIUM material has a surface hardness that is over twice that of cobalt-chrome
- OXINIUM material may last longer than other implants as it reduces more than half of the implant wear common to other knees and hips based on lab simulator studies
- OXINIUM material avoids the risk of brittle fracture that can occur with ceramic implants
- OXINIUM material is 20% lighter than cobalt-chrome
- OXINIUM material contains <0.0035% for detectable nickel, the leading cause of negative reactions in patients with metal sensitivities
OXINIUM hip and knee implants are combined with XLPE to make VERILAST◊ Technology. Want to learn more about VERILAST technology for hips and knees?
OXINIUM◊ + XLPE = VERILAST◊ Technology
For product availability specific to your country, please select your country location.
1. R.H. Zimlich, M. Levesque, W. Jones, H.D. Schutte, Jr., B.J. Livingston, W. Sauer, M. Spector, and K. Weaver, "In-vitro and in-vivo effect of particulate debris on TKA articulating surfaces", scientific exhibit SE038, 65th Ann. Mtg. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg., New Orleans, LA, March 19-23, 1998.
2. M. Levesque, B.J. Livingston, W.M. Jones, and M. Spector, "Scratches on condyles in normal functioning total knee arthroplasty", Trans. 44th Ann. Mtg. Orthop. Res. Soc., Orthopaedic Research Society, Chicago, IL, 1998, p. 247.
3. M. Long, L. Riester, and G. Hunter, “Nano-hardness measurements of oxidized Zr-2.5Nb and various orthopaedic materials”, Trans. Soc. Biomaterials, 21, 1998, p. 528.
4. G. Hunter and M. Long, “Abrasive wear of oxidized Zr-2.5Nb, CoCrMo, and Ti-6Al-4V against bone cement”, 6th World Biomaterials Cong. Trans., Society For Biomaterials, Minneapolis, MN, 2000, p. 835.
5. G. Hunter, “Adhesion testing of oxidized zirconium”, Trans. Soc. Biomaterials, 24, 2001, p. 540.
6. S. Tsai, J. Sprague, G. Hunter, R. Thomas, and A. Salehi, “Mechanical testing and finite element analysis of oxidized zirconium femoral components”, Trans. Soc. Biomaterials, 24, 2001, p. 163.
7. L. Que, L.D.T. Topoleski, and N.L. Parks, "Surface roughness of retrieved CoCrMo alloy femoral components from PCA artificial total knee joints", J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 53 (1), 1999, pp. 111- 118.
8. J.G. Lancaster, D. Dowson, G.H. Isaac, and J. Fisher, "The wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene sliding on metallic and ceramic counterfaces representative of current femoral surfaces in joint replacement", Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs., 211 (H1), 1997, pp. 17-24.
9. J. Fisher, P. Firkins, E.A. Reeves, J.L. Hailey, and G.H. Isaac, "The influence of scratches to metallic counterfaces on the wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene", Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs., 209 (H4), 1995, pp. 263-264.
10. J.L. Hailey, E. Ingham, M. Stone, B.M. Wroblewski, and J. Fisher, "Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear debris generated in vivo and in laboratory tests; the influence of counterface roughness", Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs., 210 (H1), 1996, pp. 3-10.
11. B. Weightman and D. Light, "The effect of the surface finish of alumina and stainless steel on the wear rate of UHMW polyethylene", Biomaterials, 7 (1), 1986, pp. 20-24.
12. H. Oonishi, Y. Hanatate, E. Tsuji, and H. Yunoki, "Comparisons of wear of UHMW polyethylene sliding against metal and alumina in total knee prostheses", Bioceramics, H. Oonishi, H. Aoki, and K. Sawai (eds.), Ishiyaku EuroAmerica, Tokyo, 1989, pp. 219-224.
13. J.A. Davidson, "Characteristics of metal and ceramic total hip bearing surfaces and their effect on long-term ultra high molecular weight polyethylene wear", Clin. Orthop., 294, 1993, pp. 361-378.
14. J. Fisher and D. Dowson, "Tribology of total artificial joints", Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs., 205 (H2), 1991, pp. 73-79.
15. M. Jasty, C.R. Bragdon, K. Lee, A. Hanson, and W.H. Harris, "Surface damage to cobalt-chrome femoral head prostheses", J. Bone Joint Surg., 76-B (1), 1994, pp. 73-77.
16. R.Barrack, F.Castro, E. Szuszczewicz, T.Schmalzried, “Analysis of Retrieved Uncemented Porous-Coated Acetabular Components in Patients With and Without Pelvic Osteolysis”, Orthopedics, 25:12, 2002, pp. 1373-1378.
17. Sychterz CJ, Engh CA Jr, Swope SW, McNulty DE, Engh CA, “Analysis of prosthetic femoral heads retrieved at autopsy”, Clin Orthop. 1999 Jan; (358):223-34.
18. R.A. Poggie, J.J. Wert, A.K. Mishra, and J.A. Davidson, “Friction and wear characterization of UHMWPE in reciprocating sliding contact with Co-Cr, Ti-6Al-4V and zirconia implant bearing surfaces”, Wear and Friction of Elastomers, ASTM STP 1145, R. Denton and M.K. Keshavan (eds.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1992, pp. 65-81.
19. A.M. Patel and M. Spector, “Tribological evaluation of oxidized zirconium using an articular cartilage counterface: a novel material for potential use in hemiarthroplasty”, Biomaterials, 18 (5), 1997, pp. 441-447.
20. M. Spector, M.D. Ries, R.B. Bourne, W.S. Sauer, M. Long, and G. Hunter, “Wear performance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene on oxidized zirconium total knee femoral components”, J. Bone Joint Surg., 83-A (S2), 2001, pp. 80-86.
21. N.J. Hallab, K. Merritt, and J.J. Jacobs “Metal sensitivity in patients with Orthopaedic implants”, J. Bone Joint Surg., 83-A, March, 2001, pp. 428-436.
22. G. Hunter, W.M. Jones, and M. Spector, “Oxidized zirconium”, Total Knee Arthroplasty, J. Bellemans, M.D. Ries, and J. Victor (eds.), Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 2005, pp. 370-377. Jani et al, ORS, 49, 2002.
23. Good V, Ries M, Barrack RL, Widding K, Hunter G, Heuer D, Reduced Wear with Oxidized Zirconium Femoral Heads, JBJS in print, 2003. M.D. Ries, W.L. Sauer, S.A. Banks, M. Anthony, and K. Weaver, "Effect of femoral component scratches on wear in total knee arthroplasty", Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 66th Ann. Mtg. Proc., American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Rosemont, IL, 1999, p. 231.
24. M. Ries, S. Banks, W. Sauer, and M. Anthony, "Abrasive wear simulation in total knee arthroplasty", Trans. 45th Ann. Mtg. Orthop. Res. Soc., Orthopaedic Research Society, Chicago, IL, 1999, p. 853.