Safety and Control
“Any radiation dose carries with it an associated risk of cancer induction, and the risk increases linearly with increasing dose." 5
--- Klein et al, 2009
Radiation is a well-established risk factor for cancer 1
The relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and cell damage, which may result in cancer, is well documented in the literature. 1-3
Radiation can also cause other problems
• Circulatory disease 6
• Cataract formation 5
• Genetic mutation potentially causing hereditary effects 4
• By causing mutations in germ cells, radiation may have an effect on offspring
A significant dose response causes increased risks For each rad of radiation exposure a surgeon receives in a lifetime, risks increase.
The National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) recommends using as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) levels of radiation. 8
Get your Radiation Exposure Under Control
• Enhance safety of staff and patients by using as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) levels of radiation during distal locking
• Eliminate fluoroscopy radiation time associated with distal locking 4
• Eliminate fluoroscopy radiation exposure associated with distal locking 4
1. Cardis E, Vrijheid M, Blettner M, et al. The 15-country collaborative study of cancer risk among radiation workers in the nuclear industry: estimates of radiation related cancer risks. Radiat Res. 2007;167(4):396-416.
2. Muirhead CR, O'Hagan JA, Haylock RG, et al. Mortality and cancer incidence following occupational radiation exposure: third analysis of the National Registry for Radiation Workers. Br J Cancer. 2009;100(1):206-212.
3. Sont WN, Zielinski JM, Ashmore JP, et al. First analysis of cancer incidence and occupational radiation exposure based on the National Dose Registry of Canada. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;15 (4):309-318.
4. Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation to the General Assembly. 2000.http://www.unscear.org/docs/reports/gareport.pdf Accessed February 17, 2010.
5. Klein LW, Miller DL, Balter S, et al. Occupational health hazards in the interventional laboratory: time for a safer environment. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2009;73(3):432-438.
6. Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration. Initiative to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure from medical imaging. http://www.fda.gov/Radiation-EmittingProducts/RadiationSafety/RadiationDoseReduction/ucm199994.htm Updated February 16, 2010. Accessed February 22, 2010.
7. Ashmore JP, Krewski D, Zielinski JM, Jiang H, Semenciw R, Band PR. First analysis of mortality and occupational radiation exposure based on the National Dose Registry of Canada. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148(6):564-574.
8. National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements. The application of ALARA for occupational exposures. NCRP Statement No. Issued June 8, 1999. http://www.ncrponline.org/Publications/Statement_8.pdfAccessed February 22, 2010.
1. Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration. Initiative to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure from medical imaging. http://www.fda.gov/Radiation-EmittingProducts/RadiationSafety/RadiationDoseReduction/ucm199994.htm . Published February 2010. Accessed February 11, 2010.
2. Whatling GM, Nokes LD. Literature review of current techniques for the insertion of distal screws into intramedullary locking nails. Injury. 2006;3 (2):109-119.
3. Data on file. Smith & Nephew.
4. Tornetta P, Patel P, Tseng S, Whitten A, Ricci W. Distal locking using an electromagnetic field guided computer based real time system. Poster presented at: Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association; October 8-10, 2009; San Diego, CA.